We understand that digital networks allow individuals to elaborate their content production more freely than before, and in this instance, in which cooperative systems gain space, also co-habit structures older than those broader processes of flexibilization and interactivization. The rhetoric of satisfying consumer desires and wants conceals the ambition of profit and capital expansion. Following this thought, Mcluhan discusses the world of work that, being decisively affected by the progressive automatization and by new forms of bonding between individuals and production, is disseminated both through paid and unpaid activities, through roles that range from the producer connected to specific corporation or productive system to professional mediators whose function is to establish communicative connections with users, suppliers and a myriad of publics from services aggregated to commodities to cool hunter roles and consumer behavior consultants that analyze the behavior of groups, communities and especially of youth culture , and even to consumers that assume the role of co-producers,.
This variety of possibilities of comprehending the relations between producers and consumers, including the exchanging, intersectioning and overlapping of roles, is a point highlighted by McLuhan in his reading of the consumer society based on progressive computerization and on the space-time compression due to the convergences today consolidated around the digital media.
The mode of inserting products in complex systems of meaning, which brings them closer to human affection and leaves in second plane their functions, is in part result of the images with which advertising frames what is advertised. It follows that the progressive replacement of products by advertising that McLuhan , p. The effects stimulated by advertising are amplified, and the function of commodity shifts to that of a mood trigger, an affection mobilizer, a link between individuals.
The human dimension of consumption, in the reading of this advertising, is supported by a language that is a commodity in itself. The author points out to an idea of cooperative production that would generate news senses of community: in this environment built by men, the mediatic consumer feeds back the system with his reading, presence or learning. The men built world benefits from this congregation of knowledge and daily practices around technologies and goods that transform the human senses and that are themselves continually changing, being sometimes replaced by new technological apparatus.
In this environment, the consumer is shaped through a double bonding logic: in the consciousness of inclusion he develops, there exist, simultaneously, a private sense of belonging and also a tribal, collective one. However, Baudrillard uses as a starting point some much delimited roles related to the spheres of consumption and production. McLuhan identifies in the incorporation of the public as co-producer a transformation of function: from passive consumers to work force.
The conception of the world of work developed by McLuhan takes into account the current tendency of the employment being replaced by the attachment to roles and projects that, ultimately, would figure as a blend of labor and leisure: to defend this thesis, McLuhan. This same atmosphere of the artistic work, transposed to the contemporary scene, is now grounded in a culture fostered around media and leisure industry, discussed by Morin . The author develops his thought rescaling the diagnosis of Frankfurt School Critical Theory about the impacts of the cultural industry on society.
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He defends that the social imaginary fostered by this mass culture stimulates the individuals to pursue objectives and dreams that are not predetermined by social or economic structures; the complex combination of fiction and reality in the daily life shapes individuals that are not built homogeneously, but instead are particularized in their manners of consuming and making use of cultural industry stimuli.
In this state of the relation between work and leisure, real and imaginary, the consumer takes on the role of producer and sees his activity as something playful, related to pleasure and to his private likings. We will come back to this discussion during the case analysis of Fiat Mio project of cooperative production. In short: the role of co-producer becomes a communicational strategy, a way of strategically thinking the place of the consumer as part of the conception of something that is designed for him. The world views, the values, the ideological categories that support the world shaped by advertising language are on the focus of French Discourse Analysis methodology.clublavoute.ca/necyl-illes-balears.php
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The emphasis on the materiality of language gives shape to our understanding of cultural texts and of how they relate to their social environments. The zeitgeist permeates the products derived from it, and in the case of advertising, we can notice tensions among discourses from the sociocultural scene that gives meaning to the communication. The sliding of meanings, the assumptions and the implied, the intertextual and interdiscursive relations, are elements based on the dialogic character of language, as defined by Bakhtin .
According to the author, every discourse establishes its dialogism with other discourses that have preceded it, because discourses are structured from the already-said speeches of a culture, they make use of pre-constructed elements to mobilize the social memory and to support a communal repertoire with its public; the dialogue with contemporary discourses is perceived in the tissue of language, because the individuals in charge of the linguistic production are also active consumers of the discourses permeating the social context into which they belong, as do their interlocutors; messages can only establish connection with future discourses because they seek to anticipate answers, make a projection of future actions, because they want to be assimilated by their consumers and, thus, to transform the other, to produce affections consistent with its speech project.
The advertising message projects the image of the enunciator in traits of character and body, in other words, it builds an image of the agent of enunciation that has a specific tone, psychological profile and body, grasped by the ways of saying. This image produced by discourse is also based on affections, passions invested in language that have an implication in the form in which that image is inserted in the communication; in other words, the interlocutor is projected by the message aimed at him.
From this frame of reference, we find that advertising communication works as an aesthetical layer that is inseparable from the automobile as commodity, since it is based on advertising that the consumer will be able to situate the commodity in the middle of a dynamic system of values present in society, and to situate himself in relation to market offerings. In the following paragraphs, we will discuss these elements using as basis the communication of automotive industry that has as specificity the explicit reference to the very productive processes as a metalinguistic strategy that transpose automobile production to the logic of consumption.
Analysis of automotive industry adverting in the 21th century As we pointed above, were selected for this study advertising messages with one common characteristic: they contain representations of the automobile productive process and of the world of work it entails.
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Not aiming at a quantitative analysis, we have chosen advertisements that allow us to perceive a broad range of communication strategies that correspond to categories identified in the collected material, composed by automobile advertisements that ran in the first decade of the 21th century. The three categories that encompasses all the pieces selected for this study are based on the character on the interaction proposed by the communication by the forms of giving meaning to the roles of producer and consumer.
Those categorizations are inspired by the problems posed by McLuhan as discussed above. We present below each one of these categories and the movies associated to them, their particularities and shared characteristics. In order to do this, the production rebuilds itself as a spectacle for consumption. The automotive factory is recreated in the allegory of a bakery or confectionery in which employees make a cake and huge amounts of fillings. Everything is done with artisanal attention; the human presence overwhelms the machines and automatization. The sweet voice of Julie Andrews framed by an orchestra melody gives a light and delicate tone to the advertisement.
This voice lists its owner favorite things: nature, animals, kinds of foods, praising the happiness derived from daily experience and the small details of daily life as antidote for sadness. Full of lovely stuff. The pleasure and the flavor of childhood associated to the candies serve as connotations related to the automobile. The consumer is derived from those affections, shaped as an individual whose desires must be satisfied, and encouraged to assume in this system the role of the child cuddled by the tender mother.
The corporation is humanized and the consumption of the automobile equated to pleasure. The seductive tone of the feminine vocal of Debbie Harry, associated with the dancing beat of the music, dictate the rhythm of the work, in simultaneous production processes of different models of the brand, that alternate themselves in the images. The aesthetics of the environment is futuristic with several combinations of the brand colors — white, red and black. Productive moments that build the appealing character of the Toyota brand: beautiful women with tight clothes, dancing sensually while they paint a car shell; workers moving in synchrony in front of an assembly line; a road in which the circling automobile maneuvers are shown in slow motion; the acrobatic leap of a man, jumping from a platform to test the airbags on the ground below.
The climax of the movie is the moment in which hundreds of red butterflies, responding to the press of a button, fully cover the shell of the Prius model in the air. The allegory of production seeks to convey the effects of consumption, and in order to do this, covers itself with the aesthetics of spectacle, of fashion, of acrobatic plastic, of domesticated nature — elements in convergence that are unified around the concept of the piece, that highlights the human presence.
The production once more points to the consumer senses and gives him the role of the beneficiary of the system, in an individualistic plane.
To represent this category, we have selected the movie produced for the launching of Fiat in the Brazilian market, in the year of An old model from Fiat its first version appeared during the s, a popular car that gained importance in the scene of post world war two Italian reconstructions that was upgraded to the current model in its lines got modernized and some advanced technological components were added.
The mentioned advertisement is wholly produced using animation and shows a futuristic scenario that has on automatization its main characteristic. The tone is happy, fun, warmly human, and adds complexity to the reading of a technology dominated world.
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The car image appears as a light sphere in the midst of two oversized hands in the sky, leading us to associate it with a divine work. Moving initially across a desert, the Fiat reaches the idealized technological and futuristic urban space.
At the roadside, mechanic daisies equipped with cams survey the passing automobile. The automobile is fueled by a gas pump fastened on a mechanic arm — just one drop of fuel is placed in the tank, hyperbolically suggesting the economic consumption of Fiat Returning to the road scenario, all the passing automobiles are of only one model, the one advertised, and they stop in front of a crosswalk to let a group of robots resem. And what time is this shown in the advertisement? A time in which the automotive production appears as the fabrication of a new world.
A time in which the utopia of a better world is projected in small gestures of consumption, like that of saving fuel. A dream time based on the harmony between production and consumption, both of them having sometimes specific roles and other times roles that overlap in the construction of an idealized scenario.
The community imagined by advertising is supported by an utopist ethos with technological corporality and humanistic spirit — the last associated to the sharing of ideals between producers and consumers. Nothing could be more paradoxical, if we consider that, ultimately, the popular automobile is a private solution to the problem of collective transportation at the big cities of the world.
In contraposition to the tendency pointed by McLuhan about the destiny of the automobile, that would, according to him, be replaced by other technologies, we see the recreation of the automobile by advertising, that boosts it to the future, to a world that dissolves utopias to make their consumption easier and more comfortable. A website www.
We have highlighted the communicative aspects of the project Fiat Mio since it has as important characteristic a strategy of expanding traditional advertising format. The project, that has started in the Brazilian division of the Italian assembler, has The consumer is classified in his performance, rated by the amount of ideas shared and comments made about his interventions by means of a rating system defined by the project coordinators. One of the most interesting aspects is that the productive system, defined as shared, is revealed without its meanings through the speech of Fiat workers, at the making ofs published at Youtube.
From February until January were produced 16 backstage movies that have as main characters the designers, engineers and other workers from Fiat enrolled in the Mio project. The happiness achieved through labor is expressed by the smiling faces and by the enthusiastic, motivated and emotive speeches. The incorporation of the consumer as co-producer turned into a trend: the non-paid work is sucked by the productive process, which gains a legitimate aura for being supported by the opinions and approvals of consumers.
Those, during the last stages, are asked to make a choice among limited options given by the production.